What is the difference between down regulation and up-regulation quizlet?
So a decrease in the number of receptors to a message sited on the cell membrane reduces the cell’s sensitivity to the message. That’s called down-regulation. So an increase in the number of receptors to a message sited on the cell membrane increases the cell’s sensitivity to the message. That’s called up-regulation.
What is down regulation in cells?
Downregulation: An decrease in the number of receptors on the surface of target cells, making the cells less sensitive to a hormone or another agent.
What is an up regulator?
[up reg-u-la´shun] increase in expression of a gene; in the narrowest sense, that in which transcription of a specific mRNA is increased, but also used more broadly to refer to increase in mRNA levels for a particular gene from any cause, such as increased stability of the specific mRNA.
What is up-regulation of genes?
Up-regulation is a process that occurs within a cell triggered by a signal (originating internal or external to the cell), which results in increased expression of one or more genes and as a result the proteins encoded by those genes.
What best describes the process of up-regulation?
Up-regulation involves the loss of receptors and prevents the target cells from overreacting to persistently high hormone levels. Synergism of hormones occurs in situations where one or more hormones produce the same effect at the target cell and their combined effects are amplified.
What is down-regulation quizlet?
Down-regulation. prolonged exposure to high hormone concentrations can decrease the # of receptors of that hormone; desensitizes the target cells, so they response less vigoursly to hormonal stimulation, preventing them from overreacting to persistently high hormone levels.
What is the purpose of down-regulation?
Downregulation is usually the first stage of a high stimulation IVF treatment protocol – it is the name given to the process of using medication to shut down your natural menstrual cycle, in effect causing an artificial menopause.
How does up-regulation occur?
Upregulation (i.e., increase in the number) of receptors occurs when the activity of the receptor is lower than usual (e.g., due to long-term administration of an antagonist). For example, administration of beta-blockers upregulates β adrenoreceptors.
What causes upregulation?
Numerous studies have shown that chronic exposure of a receptor to an antagonist typically leads to upregulation, or an increased number of receptors, while chronic exposure of a receptor to an agonist causes downregulation, or a decreased number of receptors (Creese & Sibley, 1981, Wonnacott, 1990).
What is down regulation quizlet?
How do you know if Gene is up or down-regulated?
I guess if FDR corrected p value ≤ 0.001 and fold change (FC) > 2 was defined as significantly deferentially expressed, then FC > 2 is up-regulated and FC < 0.5 is down-regulated. If the data was log2 transformed, the thresholds should be log2FC > 1 and log2FC < -1.
What best describes the process of up regulation quizlet?
How is down regulation related to up regulation?
Down-regulation prolonged exposure to high hormone concentrations can decrease the # of receptors of that hormone; desensitizes the target cells, so they response less vigoursly to hormonal stimulation, preventing them from overreacting to persistently high hormone levels
How are downregulation and upregulations of RNA related?
In this situation, the cells increase their production of cytochrome P450 enzymes, which in turn increases degradation of these molecules. Downregulation or upregulation of an RNA or protein may also arise by an epigenetic alteration. An epigenetic alteration can be permanent or semi-permanent in a somatic cell lineage.
How are hormone levels up and down regulated?
Up-regulation persistently low levels of a hormone can cause its target cells to form additional receptors for that hormone ex. estrogen causes progesterone to produce more receptors when there isn’t; enough, enhancing their ability to respond to progesterone ex. insulin up-regulates glucagon when there is not a lot present
When does upregulation of receptors occur what happens?
Downregulation and upregulation of receptors. Downregulation of receptors happens when receptors have been chronically exposed to an excessive amount of a ligand, either from endogenous mediators or from exogenous drugs. This results in ligand -induced desensitization or internalization of that receptor.