What do Interleukin 18 IL-18 indicate?
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that has been reported to be associated with multiple components of metabolic syndrome and to predict the development of type 2 diabetes (7,8).
What is the function interleukin 18?
IL-18 acts to promote Th1 cell activation and enhance the cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells by upregulation of FasL. IL-18 is a strong inducer of inflammatory cytokines, especially IFN-γ (its original name was “interferon-γ–inducing factor”).
Which cells produce IL-18?
Many cell types have been reported to produce IL-18, including macrophages and dendritic cells 7; IL-18 mRNA or protein is also seen in Kupffer cells 8, astrocytes and microglia 9, intestinal and airway epithelial cells 10, and in kerotinocytes 11 and osteoblasts 12.
What does IL 1beta do?
Interleukin-1-beta, one form of interleukin-1, is made mainly by one type of white blood cell, the macrophage, and helps another type of white blood cell, the lymphocyte, fight infections.
How is interleukin 18 measured?
Serum IL-18 was measured with a commercially available ELISA method (MBL Co, Ltd). Coefficients of variation ranged from 3% to 14%, and repeat determinations on the same serum sample were highly correlated (r=0.98).
Does IL-1 cause inflammation?
Whereas IL-1 family cytokine members trigger innate inflammation via IL-1 family of receptors, TLRs trigger inflammation via bacteria, microbial products, viruses, nucleic acids, and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In fact, IL-1 family member IL-1a and IL-33 also function as DAMPs.
What secretes IL10?
In humans, IL-10 is encoded by the IL10 gene, which is located on chromosome 1 and comprises 5 exons, and is primarily produced by monocytes and, to a lesser extent, lymphocytes, namely type-II T helper cells (TH2), mast cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, and in a certain subset of activated T cells and B cells …
Which drug is an interleukin 1 IL-1 receptor antagonist?
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a primary cytokine that is involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis; it contributes to inflammation and joint destruction. Anakinra (Kineret) is an IL-1 receptor antagonist that blocks the biologic activity of IL-1.
Are there any antibodies for interleukin 18 ( IL 18 )?
IL-18bp has been tested in the clinic for psoriasis and RA with limited success. Whether this is due to its relatively short half-life or to IL-18 not playing a key role in these diseases is not clear. Antibodies to both IL-18 and IL-18R are in development for several indications, including IBD (see Table 13.3 ).
How is Il-18 used in the treatment of cancer?
IL-18 has been administered to humans for the treatment of cancer in order to increase the activity and expansion of cytotoxic T-cells. Not unexpectedly and similar to several cytokines, the therapeutic focus on IL-18 has shifted from its use as an immune stimulant to inhibition of its activity (3, 37).
What’s the difference between an IL 18 knockout and an IL-18R?
On the other hand, IL-18R knockouts have accelerated rejection of transplants and enhanced cytokine production, whereas IL-18 knockouts have the opposite phenotype. Such data suggest the existence of an additional ligand or ligands that act through IL-18R; more work will be required to clarify this picture. Putao Cen,
When did the first Il-18B start to fly?
The first Il-18B flew on 30 September 1958 powered by the AI-20; a VIP variant was also built as the IL-18S for the Soviet Air Force. From April 1961 a TG-18 Auxiliary Power Unit was fitted for ground starting rather than the bank of lead-acid batteries. Some aircraft were modified to allow the APU to be run in flight.