How much would stratospheric aerosol injection cost?

How much would stratospheric aerosol injection cost?

Depending upon the scenario analyzed, aggregate costs for SAI through the remainder of the century can range from roughly $250 billion to nearly $2.5 trillion, with an annual budget in the year 2100 of $7 to $72 billion (all in 2020 USD).

When was stratospheric aerosol invented?

Stratospheric aerosol injection was first proposed by the Russian climatologist Mikhail Ivanovich Budyko in 1974 (Rasch et al., 2008/Keith, 2000).

What is stratospheric volcanic aerosol made of?

Volcanic Aerosol The dominant aerosol layer is actually formed by sulfur dioxide gas which is converted to droplets of sulfuric acid in the stratosphere over the course of a week to several months after the eruption (Fig. 1). Winds in the stratosphere spread the aerosols until they practically cover the globe.

Why is there sulphate aerosols in the stratosphere?

Sulfur aerosols are common in the troposphere as a result of pollution with sulfur dioxide from burning coal, and from natural processes. Volcanos are a major source of particles in the stratosphere as the force of the volcanic eruption propels sulfur-containing gases into the stratosphere.

How does stratospheric aerosol injection work?

Stratospheric Aerosol Injection (SAI) is a theoretical solar geoengineering proposal to spray large quantities of tiny reflective particles into the stratosphere, an upper layer of the Earth’s atmosphere, in order to cool the planet by reflecting sunlight back into space.

How do aerosols cool the Earth?

How do aerosols affect the climate? All atmospheric aerosols scatter incoming solar radiation, and a few aerosol types can also absorb solar radiation. Aerosols that mainly scatter solar radiation have a cooling effect, by enhancing the total reflected solar radiation from the Earth.

What does stratospheric aerosol injection do?

Is stratospheric aerosol injection good?

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concludes that it “is the most-researched [solar geoengineering] method, with high agreement that it could limit warming to below 1.5°C.” However, like other solar geoengineering approaches, stratospheric aerosol injection would do so imperfectly and other effects are …

Do stratospheric aerosols cause global warming?

“Even in times without major eruptions, the role of the stratosphere’s sulfuric aerosol in climate has remained significant. If they are neglected, it can result in overestimates of global warming in coming decades, particularly if these aerosols remain present at current values or increase,” said Thomason.

What are the possible risks of stratospheric aerosol injection?

In theory, injecting aerosols into the stratosphere could cool the planet at a cost of disrupting seasonal weather patterns, leading to widespread flooding or drought. We could harm our food supply, either by reducing the amount of sunlight that reaches crops or by reducing the amount of rainfall, or both.

Are there any side effects of stratospheric aerosol injection?

Other possible side effects Solar geoengineering in general poses various problems and risks. However, certain problems are specific to or more pronounced with stratospheric sulfide injection. Ozone depletion: is a potential side effect of sulfur aerosols; and these concerns have been supported by modelling.

How much does it cost to inject aerosols into the atmosphere?

Early studies suggest that stratospheric aerosol injection might have relatively low direct cost. The annual cost of delivering 5 million tons of an albedo enhancing aerosol (sufficient to offset the expected warming over the next century) to an altitude of 20 to 30 km is estimated at US$2 billion to 8 billion.

How often are aerosols injected into the stratosphere?

One study calculated the impact of injecting sulfate particles, or aerosols, every one to four years into the stratosphere in amounts equal to those lofted by the volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991, but did not address the many technical and political challenges involved in potential solar radiation management (SRM) efforts.

Is there a Stratospheric Particle Injection for climate engineering?

In 2012, the Stratospheric Particle Injection for Climate Engineering (SPICE) project planned on a limited field test in order to evaluate a potential delivery system, but this component of the project was canceled.