How does spleen affect encapsulated bacteria?

How does spleen affect encapsulated bacteria?

Conclusion. The spleen is crucial to the host response to infection by clearing polysaccharide-encapsulated bacteria. This response involves the clearing of pathogens from the bloodstream as well as the rapid production of specific antigens.

Why does spleen remove encapsulated bacteria?

The spleen contains many macrophages (part of the reticuloendothelial system), which are immune cells that phagocytose (eat) and destroy bacteria. In particular, these macrophages are activated when bacteria are bound by IgG antibodies (IgG1 or IgG3) or the complement component C3b.

What antibiotics are used for encapsulated bacteria?

If H. influenzae or N. meningitidis are suspected, ceftriaxone (or cefotaxime) provide good empiric coverage; aztreonam (or a fluoroquinone with good gram negative coverage such as ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin) can be used in patients severely allergic to penicillin and cephalosporins.

Why does a splenectomy lead to an increased risk of septicemia?

Side effects. Splenectomy causes an increased risk of sepsis, particularly overwhelming post-splenectomy sepsis due to encapsulated organisms such as S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae which are no longer able to be destroyed.

What are examples of encapsulated bacteria?

Examples of encapsulated bacteria

  • Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus)
  • Neisseria meningitides (meningococcus)
  • Group B streptococcus (GBS)
  • Salmonella typhi.

Can you live normally without a spleen?

The spleen is a fist-sized organ in the upper left side of your abdomen, next to your stomach and behind your left ribs. It’s an important part of your immune system, but you can survive without it. This is because the liver can take over many of the spleen’s functions.

What bacteria are not encapsulated?

Among the enterobacteries not having capsules one can quote : Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shiguelles, Vibrio cholerae which are gram negative bacteria. In the family of Neisseriaceae one can quote Haemophilus ducrey and H. aegyptius which are also gram negative bacilli and which are not capsuled.

Can encapsulated bacteria be Opsonized?

These studies show that, in addition to immune antibody, the alternative pathway of complement plays an important role in the opsonization of encapsulated S. aureus strains and suggest that complement may be crucial to the in vivo clearance of these organisms.

How does the spleen protect the body from infection?

The spleen serves two major critical functions in protecting against bloodstream bacterial infections–it is a phagocytic filter that removes bacteria from the bloodstream and it is an antibody-producing organ. Although the liver appears to remove the majority of well-opsonized bacteria from the blo …

What kind of defects are found in encapsulated bacteria?

Investigation of patients with recurrent infection with encapsulated bacteria hinges on identification of defects in antibody production (specific B cell defects, hyposplenism) and opsonisation defects (complement deficiency).

What to do if you do not have a spleen?

If you do not have a spleen, ask your doctor what steps to take to prevent infection or illness. This might include precautions about mosquito bites and tick bites, vaccinations, and whether you should carry antibiotics (“pill in pocket”).

What kind of tissue is the spleen made of?

The spleen is composed of two types of tissues: the red pulp, which filters the blood, and the white pulp, which contains white blood cells that regulate inflammation and the body’s response to infection. Both types of tissue play roles in fighting pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) that cause infections.