What is translocation in meiosis?
Translocations occur when chromosomes become broken during meiosis and the resulting fragment becomes joined to another chromosome. Reciprocal translocations: In a balanced reciprocal translocation (Fig. 2.3), genetic material is exchanged between two chromosomes with no apparent loss.
What does translocation mean?
: the act, process, or an instance of changing location or position: such as. a : the conduction of soluble material (such as metabolic products) from one part of a plant to another.
What happens translocation?
Translocations. A translocation occurs when a piece of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This type of rearrangement is described as balanced if no genetic material is gained or lost in the cell. If there is a gain or loss of genetic material, the translocation is described as unbalanced .
What is translocation in cell biology?
Definition. Protein translocation is a process by which proteins move between cellular compartments. Short amino-acid sequences within a protein, known as signal peptides or signal sequences, can direct its localisation, although translocation also occurs in the absence of these signal sequences.
What are the two types of translocation?
There are two main types of translocations: reciprocal and Robertsonian. In a reciprocal translocation, two different chromosomes have exchanged segments with each other. In a Robertsonian translocation, an entire chromosome attaches to another at the centromere.
What is translocation example?
|Translocation||Associated diseases||Fused genes/proteins|
|t(9;22)(q34;q11) Philadelphia chromosome||Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)||Abl1 gene on chromosome 9|
|t(15;17)(q22;q21)||Acute promyelocytic leukemia||PML protein on chromosome 15|
What is translocation explain with example?
A genetic change in which a piece of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. Sometimes pieces from two different chromosomes will trade places with each other. Translocations may lead to medical problems such as leukemia, breast cancer, schizophrenia, muscular dystrophy, and Down syndrome.
What is an example of translocation?
This newly formed chromosome is called the translocation chromosome. The translocation in this example is between chromosomes 14 and 21. When a baby is born with this type of translocation chromosome in addition to one normal 14 and two normal 21 chromosomes, the baby will have Down syndrome.
How do you know if translocation is balanced?
Most individuals with balanced translocation suffer no ill effects and are often undiagnosed until they suffer from problems with infertility. Balanced translocation errors are diagnosed through karyotyping. Blood samples are collected from each parent and analyzed for translocation.
What is translocation give example?
What is translocation with example?
How are chromosome inversions and translocations identified during meiosis?
Cytologists have characterized numerous structural rearrangements in chromosomes, but chromosome inversions and translocations are the most common. Both are identified during meiosis by the adaptive pairing of rearranged chromosomes with their former homologs to maintain appropriate gene alignment.
What are the effects of two translocated chromosomes?
The resulting fusion of the breaks yields one short and one long metacentric chromosome. If, as in plants, self-fertilization (more…) In heterozygotes having two translocated chromosomes and their normal counterparts, there are important genetic and cytological effects.
How are meiotic products produced in a reciprocal translocation?
The meiotic products resulting from the two most commonly encountered chromosome-segregation patterns in a reciprocal translocation heterozygote. Note that the configuration presented in Figure 17-23lies on the equatorial plateof the cell at metaphase, with the spindlefibers perpendicular to the page.
What happens when two nonhomologous chromosomes mutate by exchanging parts?
When two nonhomologous chromosomes mutate by exchanging parts, the resulting chromosomal rearrangements are translocations. Here we consider reciprocal translocations, the most common type. A segment from one chromosome is exchanged with a segment from another nonhomologous one, so two translocation chromosomes are generated simultaneously.