What is the most common mediastinal mass in children?
Lymphoma—Lymphoma is the most common anterior mediastinal mass in children. Although Hodgkin lymphoma typically occurs before age 10 years, non-Hodgkin lymphoma is common in both the first and second decades of life.
What is the most common posterior mediastinal tumor?
Neurogenic tumors: The most common cause of posterior mediastinal tumors, these are classified as nerve sheath neoplasms, ganglion cell neoplasms, and paraganglionic cell neoplasms. Approximately 70% of neurogenic neoplasms are benign.
How can you tell the difference between anterior and posterior mediastinal mass?
The anterior mediastinum stops at the level of the superior clavicle. Therefore, when a mass extends above the superior clavicle, it is located either in the neck or in the posterior mediastinum. When lung tissue comes between the mass and the neck, the mass is probably in the posterior mediastinum.
What would cause a mediastinal mass?
A: Depending on etiology, a mediastinal tumor can be caused by an enlarged lymph node, or a gland such as the thymus, thyroid, or parathyroid. It can also be caused by a cyst originating from the pericardium (the sac that houses the heart), the bronchus, or the esophagus.
Does a mediastinal mass hurt?
Mediastinal tumors frequently cause no symptoms at all. When they do cause symptoms, these are usually due to pressure from the enlarging tumor. Symptoms may include chest pain, coughing, hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, and/or unexpected weight loss.
What causes posterior mediastinal mass?
Causes of posterior mediastinal masses include esophageal lesions, congenital or acquired vascular lesions, foregut cysts, intrathoracic goiters, mediastinal pseudocysts, fat-containing tumors, adenopathy, neurogenic tumors, infectious spondylitis, and vertebral tumors.
How do you evaluate mediastinal mass?
CT and MRI are important for the diagnosis of mediastinal masses. The location and tissue characteristics on imaging studies are critical to narrow down the differential diagnosis of mediastinal masses. Symptomatology and patient age affect the likelihood of malignancy.
How is mediastinal mass diagnosed?
To confirm the diagnosis of a mediastinal tumor, your doctor may order tests for you, such as a:
- Chest x-ray.
- Computed tomography (CT) scan or a CT-guided biopsy of the chest.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest.
- Mediastinoscopy, a surgical procedure, with a biopsy of the tissue.
How to diagnose posterior mediastinal masses in children?
Posterior mediastinal masses. Basic approach to these lesions is by chest radiograph (PA and lateral) for localisation followed by MRI for evaluation of intraspinal extension of neurogenic tumors and distinction between vascular structures and soft tissues.
What are the symptoms of a mediastinal mass?
The mediastinum can be separated into anterior, middle, and posterior components. Mediastinal masses in children are often symptomatic and can have a varied symptomatology and etiology. The most common symptoms at presentation are dyspnea, cough, fever, aching pain and general malaise.
Which is the most common chest mass in children?
Paediatric mediastinal masses are the most common chest masses in children, with the anterior mediastinum being the most common site 1. As in adults, mediastinal masses are classified depending on anatomical sites: anterior mediastinal masses.
What kind of tumors are found in posterior mediastinal masses?
Neuroblastoma—About 90% of posterior mediastinal tumors are neurogenic, derived from the sympathetic chains that are located along the thoracic vertebral bodies. In pediatric patients, the vast majority of these neurogenic tumors are neuroblastomas; the rest are ganglioneuroblastoma or ganglioneuroma.