What is the mechanism of a femur fracture?
Trauma is the most common mechanism of femoral shaft fractures, typically involving a direct hit to the thigh or an indirect force transmitted through the knee. Younger individuals generally are engaged in high energy mechanisms such as automobile accidents, frequently resulting in other associated injuries.
How do you classify a femur fracture?
Femoral fractures can be classified into four types.
- Type I: A small fragment of the head distal to the fovea centralis.
- Type II: A larger fragment of the head distal to the fovea centralis.
- Type III: A large fragment of the head proximal to the fovea centralis.
- Type IV: Comminuted fracture.
What is femur shaft fracture?
The long, straight part of the femur is called the femoral shaft. When there is a break anywhere along this length of bone, it is called a femoral shaft fracture. This type of broken leg almost always requires surgery to heal. The femoral shaft runs from below the hip to where the bone begins to widen at the knee.
What three deformities are commonly seen in a subtrochanteric fracture?
Subtrochanteric fractures often are associated with intertrochanteric fractures. The strong gluteal and thigh muscles create a classic deformity. The proximal fragment is held in abduction, flexion, and external rotation. The gluteus medius and minimus attach at the greater trochanter and provide an abduction force.
Why is a femur fracture life threatening?
Caution: A fractured femur may be life-threatening. Death can occur following a femur fracture due to complications such as blood clots, pneumonia, or infection. Symptoms of life-threatening injury include: Localized swelling in the legs or groin, with redness and tenderness to touch.
How is a subtrochanteric fracture treated?
Surgery is usually the main treatment for subtrochanteric fractures. Surgical options include external fixation, intramedullary fixation or by using plates and screws. External fixation is a temporary fixation and used for severe open fractures.
How can subtrochanteric fracture be reduced?
Intramedullary nailing of subtrochanteric fractures is considered the gold standard of treatment and because of the deforming forces, many surgeons advocate open reduction for all displaced fractures. Closed reduction would minimise soft tissue and fracture site disturbance, and we describe a technical tip for this.
Is breaking your femur the worst pain?
Your femur is located in your thigh, running from your hip to your knee. It’s long and strong and hurts like heck when you break it. In addition to being one of the most painful breaks, a broken femur can damage the large arteries in the leg and cause severe bleeding.
What are the muscular forces of a femur fracture?
The chief muscular deforming forces depend on the fracture site and are: Abductors (gluteus medius and gluteus minimus): abduct the proximal fragment “FIGURE 41-3. Deforming muscle forces on the femur; abductors (A), iliopsoas (B), adductors (C), and gastrocnemius origin (D).
What causes a femoral shaft fracture in an older person?
Being hit by a car while walking is another common cause, as are falls from heights and gunshot wounds. A lower-force incident, such as a fall from standing, may cause a femoral shaft fracture in an older person who has weaker bones. A femoral shaft fracture usually causes immediate, severe pain.
Why are there two heads in the distal femur?
The two heads of the gastrocnemius muscle extend the distal fragment, resulting in an apex posterior angulation of the fracture. With intercondylar split fracture patterns, the two heads may also cause the distal condylar fragments to separate and rotate. Soft tissue injuries are often associated with distal femur fractures.
What kind of fracture is the distal femur?
Distal femur fractures include fractures of the supracondylar and intercondylar region of the distal femur and are relatively common injuries. To avoid the high morbidity and mortality correlating with this fracture, it requires prompt diagnosis and treatment.