What do proline-rich proteins do?
Proline-rich proteins are major components of parotid and submandibular saliva in humans as well as other animals. The acidic proline-rich proteins will bind calcium with a strength which indicates that they may be important in maintaining the concentration of ionic calcium in saliva.
Is Statherin a proline-rich protein?
Proline-rich proteins (PRPs), histatins, and statherin are salivary proteins that exhibit high affinities for hydroxyapatite surfaces. In vitro experiments with parotid submandibular/sublingual or whole saliva have shown these proteins to adsorb selectively to tooth surfaces.
Does saliva have lactoferrin?
Lactoferrin (Lf), an 80-kDa iron-binding glycoprotein belonging to the transferrin family, is a component of human secretions including saliva, and it is synthesized by exocrine glands and neutrophils in infection and inflammation sites (1).
What is the function of proline in the body?
Proline plays important roles in protein synthesis and structure, metabolism (particularly the synthesis of arginine, polyamines, and glutamate via pyrroline-5-carboxylate), and nutrition, as well as wound healing, antioxidative reactions, and immune responses.
What is the function of asparagine?
Asparagine has three major functions: 1) incorporation into amino acid sequences of proteins; 2) storage form for aspartate (is a required precursor for synthesis of DNA, RNA and ATP); and 3) source of amino groups for production of other dispensable amino acids via trasaminases.
How does the body make proline?
All mammals can synthesize proline from arginine via arginase (both type I and type II), ornithine aminotransferase, and P5C reductase, with the mammary tissue, small intestine (postweaning animals), liver, and kidneys being quantitatively the most active tissues (Wu et al. 2008).
What does proline do in the body?
The body uses proline to make proteins, such as collagen. Collagen is found in the skin, bones, and joints. Proline is also involved in the general function of cells.
What do Statherins do?
Statherin, a calcium-binding protein, prevents primary precipitation of calcium phosphate in solution. Its presence creates a supersaturation of saliva with calcium and phosphate.
What is the function of Statherin in saliva?
Statherin inhibits both nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystal and its concentration. It is the only salivary protein that inhibits the spontaneous precipitation of calcium phosphate salts from the supersaturated saliva. It inhibits primary as well as secondary precipitation of calcium phosphate salts .
What is the pH of the mouth?
Saliva has a pH normal range of 6.2-7.6 with 6.7 being the average pH. Resting pH of mouth does not fall below 6.3. In the oral cavity, the pH is maintained near neutrality (6.7-7.3) by saliva.
Is amylase a saliva?
The most abundant protein in human saliva is the digestive enzyme α-amylase . In the human body, amylase is predominantly produced by the salivary glands and the pancreas.
Where are the proline rich proteins located in saliva?
Caries-free adults neutralize bacterial acids in dental biofilms better than adults with severe caries. Saliva contains acidic and basic proline-rich proteins (PRPs) which attach to oral streptococci. The PRPs are encoded within a small region of chromosome 12.
How are dental caries related to the salivary proline?
Early childhood caries may associate with an absence of certain basic PRP alleles which bind oral streptococci, neutralize biofilm acids, and are in linkage disequilibrium with Db in Caucasians. The encoding of basic PRP alleles is updated and a new technology for genotyping them is described.
What are the alleles of the acidic PRP family?
The acidic PRP family is encoded by two genes, PRH1 and PRH2. The PRH1 locus has 3 alleles (Db, Pa, and Pif) that provide polymorphisms at the PRH1 locus, and 2 alleles (Pr1 and Pr2) at the PRH2 locus . A third allele (Pr1′) is present in 16% of African-Americans in addition to the Pr1 and Pr2 alleles .