What axis is arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) are the two most common forms of chronic immune-mediated inflammatory arthritis, and the IL-23–IL-17 axis is thought to have a critical role in both.
Do Th17 cells produce IL-23?
This puts the spotlight on IL-23, which is secreted by skin DCs, and induces production of proinflammatory mediators by Th17 cells such as IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22. These mediators will act on KCs leading to their activation and hyperproliferation.
Does rheumatoid arthritis affect the adrenal glands?
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating inflammatory arthritis that can cause adrenal fatigue and typically occurs in middle-aged individuals, but it can occur in people as young as their 20s and 30s.
What are the IL-23 inhibitors?
Among these, inhibitors of interleukin-23 (e.g., ustekinumab, guselkumab, tildrakizumab, and risankizumab) have emerged as safe and effective options for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis; ustekinumab and guselkumab have additionally been approved to treat psoriatic arthritis.
Does cortisol help arthritis?
A valuable tool in treating inflammation, cortisone is a man-made version of a natural hormone called cortisol. Cortisone is used to treat inflammatory conditions such as autoimmune diseases as well as joint swelling and pain. Both man-made cortisone and cortisol produced in the body are types of glucocorticosteroids.
Does Th17 produce IL-23?
While the requirement for IL-23 in the function of Th17 cells in vivo is established, the precise role of this cytokine in affecting the Th17 phenotype is unclear. Among other functions, IL-23 was proposed to act as a Th17 cell proliferation or survival factor.
How are IL-23 and IL-17 related to inflammation?
IL-23 induces the differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells into highly pathogenic helper T cells (Th17/Th(IL-17)) that produce IL-17, IL-17F, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, but not IFN-gamma and IL-4. Two studies in this issue of the JCI demonstrate that blocking IL-23 or its downstream factors IL-17 and IL-6, … The IL-23/IL-17 axis in inflammation
Can a IL-23 antibody drive t h 17 differentiation?
However, IL-23 alone cannot drive the differentiation of T H 17 cells from naive CD4 + T cell precursors 4, 27, indicating that additional factors are required for their lineage fate determination.
Why are IL-23 and IFN γ important?
IL-23 and IL-17 are also important in host defenses against infection. It should be noted that IL-12/IFN-γ are primarily involved in host defenses against intracellular pathogens while IL-23/IL-17 are important for defenses against extracellular pathogens, including Klebsiella pneumoniae ( 28 ).
What kind of T cells produce IL-23?
IL-23 induces the differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells into highly pathogenic helper T cells (Th17/Th(IL-17)) that produce IL-17, IL-17F, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, but not IFN-gamma and IL-4.