How do you shorten an in text citation APA?
The abbreviation “et al.” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten in-text citations with three or more authors. Here’s how it works: Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).
What can I use instead of ibid?
Ibid. is an abbreviation for ibidem, meaning “in the same place.” The current (17th) edition of the Chicago manual discourages the use of Ibid. and instead recommends use of shortened form for all repeat citations.
What is a short citation?
A short form citation may be used to identify a case that has previously been cited in full. Typically, the court and date are omitted and a pinpoint citation is given. However, the shortened name must be unambiguous and readily identify the case being referred to.
What does id mean in citations?
immediately proceeding cited authority
How do you pin a citation?
A pinpoint citation, often called a pincite, is necessary to point the reader to specific the page(s) within the case. Pincites are placed after the page on which the case begins, separated by a comma and a space. A pincite may consist of a page range or multiple pages that are not consecutive.
How many times can you use ID in a row?
The rule against using “id.” more than 5 consecutive times is usually found in a journal’s style guide; it’s not a BB rule. Rule 10.9 is about citing cases–not using id. (which is found in rule 4.1). 10.9 is short cite for cases #1 and #2 the question is about the BB.